Friday, August 13

Apa itu Hand Foot and Mouth Disease (HFMD)?


I dapat email letter dari English Class Dania tentang HFMD ni atau dalam Bahasa Malaysia dikenali dengan Penyakit Tangan Kaki dan Mulut. Dania pernah kena masa umur 3 tahun. Kesian sangat sebab bayangkan dalam mulut je ada lebih 2-3-4-5 ulser. Tak nak minum susu. Nak makan tak lalu. Jadi Dr nasihatkan bagi makan ice cream. Haihhh lalu pulak. Supaya sejuk permukaan mulut yang banyak ulser tu. Ingat lagi masa tu Dania, ayahnyer bawak naik kereta pergi mana tah....dia nangi kemain lagi. Bukan tu je siap tendang2 gear lagi. Huhuhu mencabar sungguh. Budak umur tu, nak cakap sakit pun tak reti. Pastu pulak kebetulan birthday dier. My parents datang dengan adik i ke rumah sewa i nak sambut la birthday si kenit ni.....asyik nangis je...



Email dari Julia Gabriel Center :
When the Centre is informed of HFMD/chicken pox/any infectious childhood diseases:

Parents are advised to do the following: -


1. Check their child’s hands, feet and mouth for spots or ulcers daily, before school.
2. Purchase non-slip socks for your child to wear in school rather than be barefoot.
3. Not to send their child to school if a rash appears, no matter how mild.
4. Not to send their child to school if he is sick or had a fever in the night even if the fever has gone by the morning. Many fevers start at night, disappear in the morning only to appear again.
5. Not to send their child to school if he does not want to eat. Ulcers in the mouth are hard to see, but a sure sign that your child is feeling unwell, is if he goes off his food.
6. To report any incidence of HFMD to the school.
7. Bring in children no earlier than 8.15am or 1.45pm and to pick up children no later than  12.40pm or 5.25pm. This is so children can go directly to their classrooms and we will reduce the large gathering of children before or after classes, where they mix with children from other classes.
8. Obtain a letter from the doctor stating that the child is fit to return to school.

Hand-foot-mouth disease is a relatively common infection viral infection that usually begins in the throat.
A similar infection is herpangina.

Alternative Names

Coxsackievirus infection

Causes, incidence, and risk factors

Hand Foot and Mouth Disease (HFMD) is most commonly caused by coxsackievirus A16, a member of the enterovirus family.

The disease is not spread from pets, but it can be spread by person to person. You may cacth it if you come into direct contact with nose and throat discharges, saliva, fluid from blisters, or the stools of an infected person. You are most contagious the first week you have the disease.
The time between infection and the development of symptoms is about 3 - 7 days.
The most important risk factor is age. The infection occurs most often in children under age 10, but can be seen in adolescents and occasionally adults. The outbreaks occur most often in the summer and early fall.

Symptoms

  • Fever
  • Headache
  • Loss of appetite
  • Rash with very small blisters on hands, feet, and diaper area; may be tender or painful if pressed
  • Sore throat
  • Ulcers in the throat (including tonsils), mouth, and tongue

Signs and tests

A history of recent illness and a physical examination, demonstrating the characteristic vesicles on the hands and feet, are usually sufficient to diagnose the disease.

Treatment

There is no specific treatment for the infection other than relief of symptoms.
Treatment with antibiotics is not effective, and is not indicated. Over-the-counter medicines, such as Tylenol (acetaminophen) can be used to treat fever. Aspirin should not be used in viral illnesses in children under age 12 years.
Salt water mouth rinses (1/2 teaspoon of salt to 1 glass of warm water) may be soothing if the child is able to rinse without swallowing. Make sure your child gets plenty of fluids. Extra fluid is needed when a fever is present. The best fluids are cold milk products. Many children refuse juices and sodas because their acid content causes burning pain in the ulcers.

Expectations (prognosis)

Generally, complete recovery occurs in 5 to 7 days.

Complications

  • Dehydration
  • Febrile seizures

Calling your health care provider

Call your doctor if there are signs of complications, such as pain in neck or arms and legs. Emergency symptoms include convulsions.
You should also call if:
  • A high fever is not reduced by medication
  • Signs of dehydration occur:
    • Dry skin and mucus membranes
    • Weight loss
    • Irritability
    • Lethargy
    • Decreased or dark urine.

Prevention

Avoid contact with people with known illness. Practice strict hand washing if in contact with infected children.

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